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Angkor State Temples

Jayavarman II, the first Emporor of Angkor, built several capitals.  His last capital city, and site of the first true state temple-mountain, the Bakong Temple, was at Hariharalaya, present-day Roluos, so that is where this chronology of state temples begins:

Temple Built City Founding Ruler
Bakong Temple Late 9th century CE (881) Hariharalaya Jayavarman II
Phnom Bakheng Temple Early 10th century CE (c. 907) Yashodharapura Yashovarman I
Thom Temple at Koh Ker 921 or 928 CE Koh Ker Jayavarman IV
Pre Rup Temple 961 CE Yashodharapura Rajendravarman II moved the capital back to Yashodharapura in 944 CE
Ta Keo Late 10th – early 11th century CE Jayendranagari Jayavarman V
Baphuon Temple Mid 11th century CE (1060) Yashodharapura Udayadityavarman II
Angkor Wat Temple First half of the 12th century CE (1113 – 1150) Angkor Wat Temple Suryavarman II
Preah Khan of Kompong Svay 1150 – 1156 CE Preah Khan of Kompong Svay Dharanindravarman II
Yashovarman II moved the capital back to Yashodharapura in 1156 CE.
Preah Khan Temple 1191 CE Preah Khan Temple Jayavarman VII, while he awaited completion of Angkor Thom
Bayon Temple Late 12th – early 13th century CE Angkor Thom Jayavarman VII

 

The construction of temples in Angkor came to a halt in 1295, but Angkor Thom would remain the capital of the kingdom until 1431 or 1432, when the royal capital was finally abandoned to the Siamese, who drove the Khmers out and made Cambodia a vassal of the Thai Sukhothai Kingdom.

 

Other Khmer Capitals

The pre-Angkor Khmer civilization that centered on Óc Eo, with its inland capital of Vyadapura, was called Funan by the Chinese.

Sambor was the first capital of Chenla after it fused with Funan in 540 CE.

Sambor Prei Kuk was the capital of Ishanavarman I (reign 616 – 635 CE)

Jayavarman I (reign 657 – 690 CE), moved the capital to the region of Angkor Borei near Takeo, in southern Cambodia.

Suryavarman I (reign 1002 – 1050 CE) established a regional Khmer capital in Louvo (modern day Lopburi in Thailand)

Suryavarman II (reign 1113 – 1150 CE) captured the Cham royal capital Vijaya, in Northern Vietnam, 1144 - 1145 CE, and made it his regional capital.

Jayavarman VII retook Vijaya in 1203 and again established it as his regional capital until it fell back into Cham control in 1220 CE.



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