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Angkor Architectural Styles

3 min read

PRE-ANGKOREAN ARCHITECTURE

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Sambor Prei Kuk c. 610 – c. 650 CE Ishanavarman I, Bhavavarman II
  • Round, plain colonettes with capitals that include a bulb.

See also Sambor Prei Kuk Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Prei Kmeng c. 635 – c. 700 CE Jayavarman I
  • Masterpieces of sculpture, but primitive architecture.
  • Larger colonettes are more heavily decorated.
  • General decline in standards.

See also Prei Kmeng Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Kompong Preah c. 700 – c. 800 CE Various
Found at:  Ak Yom Temple
  • More decorative rings on cylindrical colonettes.
  • Continuing brick construction.

See also Kompong Preah Lintel Style.

 

TRANSITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Kulen c. 825 – c. 875 CE Jayavarman II
  • Continuation of pre-Angkorean style, but a period of innovation and borrowing, such as from Cham temples.
  • Relatively high towers are mainly square.
  • Mainly brick, with laterite walls and stone door surrounds.
  • Square and octagonal colonettes begin to appear.

See also Kulen Lintel Style.

 

ANGKOREAN ARCHITECTURE

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Preah Ko 877 – c. 886 CE Indravarman I
Jayavarman III
Found at:  Bakong Temple
Kutishvara Temple
Lolei Temple
Preah Ko Temple
  • Simple plan: one or more square brick towers on a single base.
  • First appearance of concentric enclosures.
  • First appearance of gopuras and ‘libraries’.
  • Decorative ‘flying palaces' replaced by dvarapalas and devatas in niches.
  • First major temple-mountain at Bakong Temple.

See also Preah Ko Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Bakheng 889 – 923 CE Yashovarman I
Harshavarman I
Found at:  Baksei Chamkrong Temple
Bei Temple
Kravan Temple
Lolei Temple
Phnom Bakheng Temple
Phnom Bok Temple
Phnom Krom Temple
Bay Ka-ek Temple
  • Development of the temple-mountain.
  • More use of stone, particularly for major temples.
  • More decorative stone carving.

See also Bakheng Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Koh Ker c. 921 – 944 CE Jayavarman IV
Found at:  Baksei Chamkrong Temple
Damrei Temple at Koh Ker
Koh Ker
Kravan Temple
  • Scale of buildings diminishes towards the centre.
  • Brick is still the main material, but sandstone also used.

See also Koh Ker Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Pre Rup 944 – 968 CE Rajendravarman II
Found at:  Bat Chum Temple
East Mebon Temple
Kutishvara Temple
Pre Rup Temple
  • Transitional between Koh Ker and Banteay Srei.
  • Long halls partly enclose the sanctuary.
  • The last great monuments in plastered brick.
  • Increasing use of sandstone.

See also Pre Rup Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Banteay Srei 967 – 1000 CE Jayavarman V
Found at:  Banteay Srei Temple
  • Ornate, superposed pediments.
  • Sweeping gable ends.
  • Rich and deep carving.
  • Plastered brick replaced by stone and laterite.
  • Appearance of mythological scenes in pediments.
  • Voluptuous devatas with gentle expressions.

See also Banteay Srei Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Khleang 968 – 1010 CE Jayavarman V
Found at:  North Khleang Temple
Phimeanakas Temple
Royal Palace
South Khleang Temple
Ta Keo Temple
  • First use of galleries.
  • Cruciform (cross-shaped) gopuras.
  • Octagonal colonettes.
  • Restrained decorative carving.

See also Khleang Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Baphuon 1050 – 1080 CE Udayadityavarman II
Found at:  Baphuon Temple
Kbal Spean
West Mebon Temple
  • A return to rich carving: floral motifs, but also lintels with scenes.
  • Nagas without headdress.
  • Bas-reliefs appear at the Baphuon Temple, carved with lively scenes enclosed in small panels, often in narrative sequence.

See also Baphuon Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Angkor Wat c. 1080 – 1175 CE Jayavarman VI
Suryavarman II
Yashovarman II
Found at:  Angkor Wat Temple
Banteay Samre Temple
Beng Mealea Temple
Chau Say Tevoda Temple
Phimai Temple in present-day Thailand
Phnom Rung Temple in present-day Thailand
Preah Pithu Temple Group (some)
Thommanon Temple
Wat Athvear Temple
  • The high classical style of Khmer architecture.
  • Fully developed conical towers with curved profile.
  • Galleries wider and with half galleries on one side.
  • Concentric enclosures connected by axial galleries.
  • Nagas with headdress.
  • Naga balustrades raised off the ground.
  • Invention of the cruciform (cross-shaped) terrace.
  • Richly carved lintels and other decorations.
  • Bas-reliefs.
  • Apsaras.

See also Angkor Wat Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Bayon 1181 – 1243 CE Jayavarman VII
Indravarman II
Found at:  Angkor Thom
Angkor Thom South Gate
Banteay Chhmar Temple
Banteay Kdei Temple
Banteay Prei Temple
Banteay Thom Temple
Banteay Torp Temple
Bayon Temple
Chapel of the Hospital
Chrung Temples
Krol Ko Temple
Jayatataka (Baray)
Neak Poan Temple
Palilay Temple
Prei Temple
Prei Prasat Temple
Preah Khan Temple
Royal Terraces
Srah Srang
Suor Proat Temple
Ta Nei Temple
Ta Prohm Temple
Ta Prohm Kel Temple
Ta Som Temple
Terrace of the Elephants
Terrace of the Leper King
Tonle Sgnout Temple
East Top Temple
  • The last great Angkor style.
  • Hurried construction, often in laterite not stone.
  • Carving less elegant.
  • Complex plans, huge temples.
  • In Cambodia, face-towers, and historical narrative bas-reliefs.
  • Three periods:
    1. Large, complex temples on a single level;
    2. Face-towers and avenues of giants carrying nagas;
    3. Decline of building standards, devatas acquire Angkor Wat Temple-style diadem.

See also Bayon Lintel Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Post-Bayon 1243 – 15th century CE Jayavarman VIII and others
Found at:  Modifications to monuments at:
Palilay Temple
Preah Pithu Temple Group
Spean Thma
Terrace of the Leper King
Tep Pranam Temple
  • Development of the cruciform (cross-shaped) terrace.
  • Causeways on columns, low or high.

See also Post-Bayon Lintel Style.

See also Angkor Lintel Styles.



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