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PRE-ANGKOREAN ARCHITECTURE

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Sambor Prei Kuk c. 610 – c. 650 CE Ishanavarman I, Bhavavarman II
  • Inward-facing makaras with tapering bodies.
  • Four arches joined by three medallions, the central one carved with Indra.
  • Small figure on each makara.
  • A variation is with figures replacing the makaras, and a scene with figures below the arch.

See also Sambor Prei Kuk Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Prei Kmeng c. 635 – c. 700 CE Jayavarman I
  • Continuation of Sambor Prei Kuk, but makaras disappear, being replaced by incurving ends and figures.
  • Arches more rectilinear.
  • Large figures sometimes at each end.
  • A variation is a central scene below the arch, usually Vishnu Reclining.

See also Prei Kmeng Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Kompong Preah c. 700 – c. 800 CE Various
  • High quality carving.
  • Arches replaced by a garland of vegetation (like a wreath) more or less segmented.
  • Medallions disappear, central one sometimes replaced by a knot of leaves.
  • Leafy pendants spray out above and below garland.

See also Kompong Preah Architectural Style.

 


TRANSITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Kulen c. 825 – c. 875 CE Jayavarman II
  • Great diversity, with influences from Champa and Java, including the kala and outward-facing makaras.

See also Kulen Architectural Style.

 


ANGKOREAN ARCHITECTURE

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Preah Ko 877 – c. 886 CE Indravarman I
Jayavarman III
Found at:  Bakong Temple
Kutishvara Temple
Lolei Temple
Preah Ko Temple
  • Some of the most beautiful of all Angkor lintels, rich, well-carved and imaginative.
  • Kala in centre, issuing garland on either side.
  • Distinct loops of vegetation curl down from garland.
  • Outward-facing makaras sometimes appear at the ends.
  • Vishnu on Garuda common.

See also Preah Ko Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Bakheng 889 – 923 CE Yashovarman I
Harshavarman I
Found at:  Baksei Chamkrong Temple
Bei Temple
Kravan Temple
Phnom Bakheng Temple
Phnom Bok Temple
Phnom Krom Temple
Bay Ka-ek Temple
  • Continuation of Preah Ko, but less fanciful, and tiny figures disappear.
  • Loops of vegetation below the naga form tight, circular coils.
  • Garland begins to dip in the centre.

See also Bakheng Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Koh Ker c. 921 – 944 CE Jayavarman IV
Found at:  Baksei Chamkrong Temple
Damrei Temple at Koh Ker
Koh Ker
Kravan Temple
  • Centre occupied by a prominent scene, taking up almost the entire height of the lintel.
  • Usually no lower border.
  • Dress of figures shows a curved line to the sampot tucked in below waist.

See also Koh Ker Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Pre Rup 944 – 968 CE Rajendravarman II
Found at:  Bat Chum Temple
East Mebon Temple
Kutishvara Temple
Pre Rup Temple
  • Tendency to copy earlier styles, especially Preah Ko and Bakheng.
  • Central figures.
  • Re-appearance of lower border.

See also Pre Rup Architectural Style.

Indra on Airavata, East Mebon Temple, Angkor, Cambodia. 2021 by Lucas Varro
Indra on Airavata, East Mebon Temple, Angkor, Cambodia. 2021
Indra on his vahana (mount or vehicle), the three-headed elephant Airavata.  Small horsemen emerge from the foliage stems, and the lintel is topped with a frieze of praying fugures.
Lintel above the east door, central sanctuary, East Mebon Temple.
Style Dates Rulers
Details
Banteay Srei 967 – 1000 CE Jayavarman V
Found at:  Banteay Srei Temple
  • Increase in complexity and detail.
  • Garland sometimes makes pronounced loop on either side, with kala at top of each loop.
  • Central figure.

See also Banteay Srei Architectural Style.

Lintel at Banteay Srei
Lintel at Banteay Srei Temple showing Yama on his buffalo.  On each side, a kala bites the head of an elephant.
This lintel is above the southern blind door of the southern sanctuary, which is devoted to Shiva.
Style Dates Rulers
Details
Khleang 968 – 1010 CE Jayavarman V
Found at:  North Khleang Temple
Phimeanakas Temple
Royal Palace
South Khleang Temple
Ta Keo Temple
  • Less ornate than those of Banteay Srei.
  • Central kala with triangular tongue, its hands holding the garland, which is bent at the centre.
  • Kala sometimes surmounted by a divinity.
  • Loops of garland on either side divided by floral stalk and pendant.
  • Vigorous treatment of vegetation.

See also Khleang Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Baphuon 1050 – 1080 CE Udayadityavarman II
Found at:  Baphuon Temple
West Mebon Temple
  • The central kala surmounted by divinity, usually riding a steed, or a Vishnuite scene, typically from the life of Krishna.
  • Loops of garland no longer cut.
  • A variation is a scene with many figures and little vegetation.

See also Baphuon Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Angkor Wat c. 1080 – 1175 CE Jayavarman VI
Suryavarman II
Yashovarman II
Found at:  Angkor Wat Temple
Banteay Samre Temple
Beng Mealea Temple
Chau Say Tevoda Temple
Phimai Temple in present-day Thailand
Phnom Rung Temple in present-day Thailand
Preah Pithu Temple Group (some)
Thommanon Temple
Wat Athvear Temple
  • Centred, framed and linked by garlands.
  • A variation is a narrative scene filled with figures.
  • When nagas appear, they are crowned.
  • When there is vegetation, its curls are tight and prominent.
  • Dress mirrors that of devatas and apsaras in bas-reliefs.
  • No empty spaces.

See also Angkor Wat Architectural Style.

Style Dates Rulers
Details
Bayon 1181 – 1243 CE Jayavarman VII
Indravarman II
Found at:  Angkor Thom
Banteay Chhmar Temple
Banteay Kdei Temple
Banteay Prei Temple
Banteay Thom Temple
Banteay Torp Temple
Bayon Temple
Chapel of the Hospital
Chrung Temples
Krol Ko Temple
Palilay Temple
Prei Temple
Prei Prasat Temple
Preah Khan Temple
Suor Proat Temple
Ta Nei Temple
Ta Prohm Temple
Ta Prohm Kel Temple
Ta Som Temple
Tonle Sgnout Temple
East Top Temple
  • Most figures disappear: usually only a kala at the bottom of the lintel surmounted by small figure.
  • Mainly Mahayana Buddhism motifs.
  • In the middle of the period the garland is cut into four parts, while later a series of whorls of foliage replace the four divisions.

See also Bayon Architectural Style.

 

See also Angkor Architectural Styles.



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